PPhotovoltaic PV module type of integration over buildings or ground or water


Renewable Energy from Alternative Sources


For a Better Future

pv panels




Solar photovoltaics (PVs) are arrays of cells containing a material that converts solar radiation into direct current electricity. Materials presently used for photovoltaics include amorphous silicon, polycrystalline silicon, microcrystalline silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium selenide/sulfide.[1] Due to the growing demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacture of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced dramatically in recent years.

solar roof


Photovoltaic solar panels on a house roof.
Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are increasingly incorporated into new domestic and industrial buildings as a principal or ancillary source of electrical power,[41] and are one of the fastest growing segments of the photovoltaic industry.[42] Typically, an array is incorporated into the roof or walls of a building, and roof tiles with integrated PV cells can now be purchased. Arrays can also be retrofitted into existing buildings; in this case they are usually fitted on top of the existing roof structure. Alternatively, an array can be located separately from the building but connected by cable to supply power for the building.
Where a building is at a considerable distance from the public electricity supply (or grid) - in remote or mountainous areas – PV may be the preferred possibility for generating electricity, or PV may be used together with wind, diesel generators and/or hydroelectric power. In such off-grid circumstances batteries are usually used to store the electric power.
In locations near the grid, however, feeding the grid using PV panels is more practical, and leads to optimum use of the investment in the photovoltaic system. This requires both regulatory and commercial preparation, including net-metering and feed-in agreements. To provide for possible power failure, some grid tied systems are set up to allow local use disconnected from the grid. Most photovoltaics are grid connected. In the event the grid fails, the local system must not feed the grid to prevent the possible creation of dangerous islanding.
The power output of photovoltaic systems for installation in buildings is usually described in kilowatt-peak units (kWp).

photovoltaic plants www.ipannellifotovoltaici.com


In transport

PV has traditionally been used for auxiliary power in space. PV is rarely used to provide motive power in transport applications, but is being used increasingly to provide auxiliary power in boats and cars. Recent advances in solar race cars, however, have produced cars that with little changes could be used for transportation.

Standalone devices


Solar parking meter.

ticket parking meter wit photovoltaic

Until a decade or so ago, PV was used frequently to power calculators and novelty devices. Improvements in integrated circuits and low power LCD displays make it possible to power such devices for several years between battery changes, making PV use less common. In contrast, solar powered remote fixed devices have seen increasing use recently in locations where significant connection cost makes grid power prohibitively expensive. Such applications include parking meters, emergency telephones, temporary traffic signs, and remote guard posts & signals.


Rural electrification

Developing countries where many villages are often more than five kilometers away from grid power have begun using photovoltaics. In remote locations in India a rural lighting program has been providing solar powered LED lighting to replace kerosene lamps. The solar powered lamps were sold at about the cost of a few month's supply of kerosene. Cuba is working to provide solar power for areas that are off grid. These are areas where the social costs and benefits offer an excellent case for going solar though the lack of profitability could relegate such endeavors to humanitarian goals.

Solar roadways

A 45 mi (72 km) section of roadway in Idaho is being used to test the possibility of installing solar panels into the road surface, as roads are generally unobstructed to the sun and represent about the percentage of land area needed to replace other energy sources with solar power.

Optimum Orientation of Solar Panels

For best performance, PV systems aim to maximize the time they face the sun. Solar trackers aim to achieve this by moving PV panels to follow the sun. The increase can be by as much as 20% in winter and by as much as 50% in summer. Static mounted systems can be optimized by analysis of the Sun path. Panels are often set to latitude tilt, an angle equal to the latitude, but performance can be improved by adjusting the angle for summer and winter.


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